Chapter 1. AFRICA
All modern Homo sapiens most likely began at a place in what we now call Africa. (Look at the map.) Back then, it had no such name; or perhaps was called something else. That was a very long time ago; perhaps 300,000 years ago.
This is a map of AFRICA
As social creatures, we started out at the red asterisk (See the map).
The first Homo Sapiens were medium brown skin people.
Homo sapiens began to walk away from their starting point about 80,000 years ago. They went in various directions. Most Homo sapiens did not roam too far from the red asterisk. But others kept on going.
COMMON SENSE TELLS US THAT THEY WALKED MOSTLY ANYWHERE THERE WAS A RIVER OR SOME KIND OF WATER. WHY? SO THAT THEY COULD EASILY CATCH FISH TO EAT. FISHING WAS EASIER THAN HUNTING; THE FISH DID NOT FIGHT BACK. IT’S THAT STRAIGHTFORWARD.
Genetic data shows that the biochemical systems of Asian and European populations, appear to be more similar to each other, than they are to current day African populations. Thus, Asians (Mongols) and Europeans (Caucasians) may have shared a common ancestry with each other, some 40,000 years ago and a common ancestry with African populations before that. The Out of Africa (OOA) migration, which ushered Africans into Asia, occurred at about 50,000 B.C. The modern Mongol shows great affiliation with the San tribe of African in body type and facial features, thus the presumed genesis below.
This latest theory is worth considering because the San demonstrate a wide range of phenotypes that could easily evolve into the modern variations of Mongols, Europeans, and Africans that we see today. The first contacts between melanoid and Albinoid people, since the (OOA) events, occurs in Eastern Europe sometime around 1,500 B.C.
The San people (or Saan), also known as Bushmen or Basarwa, are members of various indigenous hunter-gatherer people of Southern Africa, whose territories span Botswana, Namibia, Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho and South Africa. DNA testing has shown that they are direct descendants of the first Homo Sapiens, and have lived in the region for around 20,000 years. Where might they have dwelt before then? One broad study of African genetic diversity completed in 2009 found that the San were among the five populations with the highest measured levels of genetic diversity among the 121 distinct African populations sampled. The San are one of 14 known extant “ancestral population clusters”. That is, “groups of populations with common genetic ancestry, who share ethnicity and similarities in both their culture and the properties of their languages”.
Eventually, some walkers migrated Out of Africa(follow the arrows).
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The most accessible first stop would have been across the Red Sea to Arabia. The second most accessible route would have been across the Sinai peninsula toward Turkey (Asia Minor) and onward to Asia. The direct route to Europe would be almost inaccessible owing to the Atlas Mountains. However, a very few migrants may have succeeded there.
Naturally, they mostly left in groups, since it would be safer to do so. These groups were mostly made up of families and relatives who trusted and loved one another. We call these small groups tribes. Usually the oldest member of the group was the head man or chief since he had the most experience. He was the adviser or doctor. The strongest and bravest one became the chief. Because they were all family they had a common grandfather or grandmother.
Why do groups of people generally look alike ? While looking very different to other groups? The answer is random genetic outcome of features reinforced by subsequent inbreeding. It has little or nothing to do with environment.
These walkers must have at first look very much alike. Over time, and sticking together for security and Trust, they mostly interbred. Their offspring would reinforce their dominant inherited features. Living together their had common ways of doing things. This was their culture. Eventually, any stranger could see that such and such a person belonged to the same tribe. For instance, it could be seen that some tribes were made of mostly short and dark people; others were mostly tall and skinny. Some became famous for running, others for planning. This was because they inherited the characteristics of their most recent grandfathers and grandmothers. Simple.
The red asterisk of the map shows a starting point in southwestern Africa — a place now called Namibia. (Click for pictures). This was home to the first humans. At the same time there were also non-humans called Neanderthals that lived far away in Asia and Europe. The hostile climate there may not have been conducive to their survival in the long run. In Africa there were also primates like gorillas, bonobos and Great Apes, chimpanzees and Orang Utans. They were not of our species. They were not human. However, because the climate was less hostile they all survived; so did we.
The walkers went in all directions in search of their own space
and to do their own thing. But there were various barriers to their journey depending on the direction they took.
Toward the center — there was the challenge of dense jungles of the Congo, with terrible beasts;
Toward the north-west was a Tall mountain barrier -The Atlas Mountains ; At north center was the vast Sahara Desert.
From the starting asterisk some families veered to the right towards the dense Jungle of the center.
The most fruitful route was to the south. There was a direct route along massive rivers with abundant food. Before reaching the end of the great Nile river some would have branched off near what is now Djibouti/Ethiopia and crossed over into what is now Arabia. For others who made it up to Egypt it was easy for them to circumnavigate the Sahara Desert and populate the North African area now called The Maghreb. From there they would easily walk or swim across to another land mass — Southern Europe. Quite possibly, they would encounter some surviving Neanderthals and may even have bred with them. Who knows?
But before we follow the path of those who went East out of Africa, let’s consider the untold story of